product

1310-73-2, Sodium hydroxide

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 Names

Name Sodium hydroxide
Synonym More Synonyms

 Chemical & Physical Properties

Density 1.515 g/mL at 20 °C
Boiling Point 145 °C
Melting Point 681 °C(lit.)
Molecular Formula HNaO
Molecular Weight 39.997
Flash Point 176-178°C
Exact Mass 39.992512
PSA 23.06000
Vapour density <1 (vs air)
Vapour Pressure 24.5mmHg at 25°C
Index of Refraction 1.473-1.475
Water Solubility SOLUBLE

 Toxicological Information

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
WB4900000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Sodium hydroxide
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
1310-73-2
LAST UPDATED :
199712
DATA ITEMS CITED :
46
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
H-Na-O
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
40.00
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
NA Q

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Primate – monkey
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Rinsed with water
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 – Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
40 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo – Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent – hamster Ovary
REFERENCE :
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- Volume(issue)/page/year: 225,55,1989 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-CL 2 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974- Volume(issue)/page/year: 39,299,1978 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** EPA FIFRA 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936- Volume(issue)/page/year: 54,7740,1989 MSHA STANDARD:air-CL 2 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,233,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:STEL 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:STEL 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 2 mg/m3;STEL 4 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THAILAND:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-TURKEY:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 2 mg/m3;STEL 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO SODIUM HYDROXIDE-air:CL 2 mg/m3/15M REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS – National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code – 69070 No. of Facilities: 112525 (estimated) No. of Industries: 359 No. of Occupations: 192 No. of Employees: 1122583 (estimated) NOES – National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code – X3782 No. of Facilities: 21989 (estimated) No. of Industries: 167 No. of Occupations: 120 No. of Employees: 370582 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 137156 (estimated) NOES – National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code – 69070 No. of Facilities: 133757 (estimated) No. of Industries: 426 No. of Occupations: 246 No. of Employees: 2819743 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 995960 (estimated)

 Safety Information

Symbol GHS05
GHS05
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H290-H314
Precautionary Statements P280-P303 + P361 + P353-P304 + P340 + P310-P305 + P351 + P338
Personal Protective Equipment Eyeshields;Faceshields;full-face particle respirator type N100 (US);Gloves;respirator cartridge type N100 (US);type P1 (EN143) respirator filter;type P3 (EN 143) respirator cartridges
Hazard Codes C: Corrosive;
Risk Phrases R35
Safety Phrases S26-S45-S37/39-S24/25-S36/37/39
RIDADR UN 1824 8/PG 2
WGK Germany 1
RTECS TT2975000
Packaging Group II
Hazard Class 8
HS Code 2815110000

 Synthetic Route

Previous 1/26 Next

sodium chloride structure

sodium chloride

7647-14-5

~87%

Sodium hydroxide structure

Sodium hydroxid…

1310-73-2

Literature: Gmelin Handbook: Na: MVol., 43.4, page 175 – 177 Full Text Show Details Kayser; Williams; Young Patent: EP11492 , 1887 ; Full Text Show Details Kayser Patent-Company Patent: EP10202 , 1891 ; Full Text Show Details Kayser Patent-Company Patent: DE63223 , 1891 ; Full Text Show Details Lunge, G. Handbuch der Soda-Industrie und ihrer Nebenzweige, 3. Aufl., Friedr. Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig 1909, Bd. 3, S. 214
Water structure

Water

7732-18-5

sodium chloride structure

sodium chloride

7647-14-5

~%

Sodium hydroxide structure

Sodium hydroxid…

1310-73-2

Literature: Ber., , vol. 18, p. 344 – 344 Cl: MVol., 80, page 222 – 223
sodium carbonate structure

sodium carbonat…

497-19-8

~%

SodiuM bicarbonate structure

SodiuM bicarbon…

144-55-8

Sodium hydroxide structure

Sodium hydroxid…

1310-73-2

Literature: Biochemische Zeitschrift, , vol. 21, p. 131 Biochemische Zeitschrift, , vol. 22, p. 352 Veroeff. Reichsgesundheitsamts, , vol. 38, p. 261 – 261 Veroeff. Reichsgesundheitsamts, , vol. 38, p. 269 – 269 Veroeff. Reichsgesundheitsamts, , vol. 38, p. 270 – 270 Veroeff. Reichsgesundheitsamts, , vol. 38, p. 273 – 273 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 35, p. 23 – 23 American Chemical Journal, , vol. 29, p. 452 – 452 American Chemical Journal, , vol. 29, p. 453 – 453 American Chemical Journal, , vol. 29, p. 455 – 455 Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 37, p. 2268 – 2268 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 89, p. 61 – 61 Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 38, p. 954 – 954 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 33, p. 173 – 173 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 100, p. 288 – 288 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 100, p. 294 – 294 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 51, p. 484 – 484 Kolloidchem. Beih., , vol. 25, p. 423 – 423 Journal of the Chemical Society, , vol. 111, p. 144 – 144 Journal of the Chemical Society, , vol. 111, p. 154 – 154 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 12, p. 174 – 174 Biochemische Zeitschrift, , vol. 21, p. 184 – 184 Journal of the Chemical Society, , vol. 77, p. 10 – 10 Na: MVol., 268, page 742 – 750

 Customs

HS Code 2815110000

 Articles2376

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Aptamer-based polyvalent ligands for regulated cell attachment on the hydrogel surface.

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Natural biomolecules are often used to functionalize materials to achieve desired cell-material interactions. However, their applications can be limited owing to denaturation during the material funct…

Osmoregulatory bicarbonate secretion exploits H(+)-sensitive haemoglobins to autoregulate intestinal O2 delivery in euryhaline teleosts.

J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. 184(7) , 865-76, (2014)

Marine teleost fish secrete bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) into the intestine to aid osmoregulation and limit Ca(2+) uptake by carbonate precipitation. Intestinal HCO3 (-) secretion is associated with an equi…

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Surfaces functionalized with affinity ligands have been widely studied for applications such as biological separations and cell regulation. While individual ligands can be directly conjugated onto a s…

 Synonyms

EINECS 231-659-4
MFCD00011405
NaOH
caustic soda
Sodium hydroxide

 

 

 

 Names

Name Sodium hydroxide
Synonym More Synonyms

 Chemical & Physical Properties

Density 1.515 g/mL at 20 °C
Boiling Point 145 °C
Melting Point 681 °C(lit.)
Molecular Formula HNaO
Molecular Weight 39.997
Flash Point 176-178°C
Exact Mass 39.992512
PSA 23.06000
Vapour density <1 (vs air)
Vapour Pressure 24.5mmHg at 25°C
Index of Refraction 1.473-1.475
Water Solubility SOLUBLE

 Toxicological Information

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
WB4900000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Sodium hydroxide
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
1310-73-2
LAST UPDATED :
199712
DATA ITEMS CITED :
46
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
H-Na-O
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
40.00
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
NA Q

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Primate – monkey
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Rinsed with water
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 – Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
40 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo – Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent – rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent – hamster Ovary
REFERENCE :
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- Volume(issue)/page/year: 225,55,1989 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-CL 2 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974- Volume(issue)/page/year: 39,299,1978 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** EPA FIFRA 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936- Volume(issue)/page/year: 54,7740,1989 MSHA STANDARD:air-CL 2 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,233,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:STEL 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:STEL 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 2 mg/m3;STEL 4 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THAILAND:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-TURKEY:TWA 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 2 mg/m3;STEL 2 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO SODIUM HYDROXIDE-air:CL 2 mg/m3/15M REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS – National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code – 69070 No. of Facilities: 112525 (estimated) No. of Industries: 359 No. of Occupations: 192 No. of Employees: 1122583 (estimated) NOES – National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code – X3782 No. of Facilities: 21989 (estimated) No. of Industries: 167 No. of Occupations: 120 No. of Employees: 370582 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 137156 (estimated) NOES – National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code – 69070 No. of Facilities: 133757 (estimated) No. of Industries: 426 No. of Occupations: 246 No. of Employees: 2819743 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 995960 (estimated)

 Safety Information

Symbol GHS05
GHS05
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H290-H314
Precautionary Statements P280-P303 + P361 + P353-P304 + P340 + P310-P305 + P351 + P338
Personal Protective Equipment Eyeshields;Faceshields;full-face particle respirator type N100 (US);Gloves;respirator cartridge type N100 (US);type P1 (EN143) respirator filter;type P3 (EN 143) respirator cartridges
Hazard Codes C: Corrosive;
Risk Phrases R35
Safety Phrases S26-S45-S37/39-S24/25-S36/37/39
RIDADR UN 1824 8/PG 2
WGK Germany 1
RTECS TT2975000
Packaging Group II
Hazard Class 8
HS Code 2815110000

 Synthetic Route

Previous 1/26 Next

sodium chloride structure

sodium chloride

7647-14-5

~87%

Sodium hydroxide structure

Sodium hydroxid…

1310-73-2

Literature: Gmelin Handbook: Na: MVol., 43.4, page 175 – 177 Full Text Show Details Kayser; Williams; Young Patent: EP11492 , 1887 ; Full Text Show Details Kayser Patent-Company Patent: EP10202 , 1891 ; Full Text Show Details Kayser Patent-Company Patent: DE63223 , 1891 ; Full Text Show Details Lunge, G. Handbuch der Soda-Industrie und ihrer Nebenzweige, 3. Aufl., Friedr. Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig 1909, Bd. 3, S. 214
Water structure

Water

7732-18-5

sodium chloride structure

sodium chloride

7647-14-5

~%

Sodium hydroxide structure

Sodium hydroxid…

1310-73-2

Literature: Ber., , vol. 18, p. 344 – 344 Cl: MVol., 80, page 222 – 223
sodium carbonate structure

sodium carbonat…

497-19-8

~%

SodiuM bicarbonate structure

SodiuM bicarbon…

144-55-8

Sodium hydroxide structure

Sodium hydroxid…

1310-73-2

Literature: Biochemische Zeitschrift, , vol. 21, p. 131 Biochemische Zeitschrift, , vol. 22, p. 352 Veroeff. Reichsgesundheitsamts, , vol. 38, p. 261 – 261 Veroeff. Reichsgesundheitsamts, , vol. 38, p. 269 – 269 Veroeff. Reichsgesundheitsamts, , vol. 38, p. 270 – 270 Veroeff. Reichsgesundheitsamts, , vol. 38, p. 273 – 273 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 35, p. 23 – 23 American Chemical Journal, , vol. 29, p. 452 – 452 American Chemical Journal, , vol. 29, p. 453 – 453 American Chemical Journal, , vol. 29, p. 455 – 455 Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 37, p. 2268 – 2268 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 89, p. 61 – 61 Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 38, p. 954 – 954 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 33, p. 173 – 173 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 100, p. 288 – 288 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 100, p. 294 – 294 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 51, p. 484 – 484 Kolloidchem. Beih., , vol. 25, p. 423 – 423 Journal of the Chemical Society, , vol. 111, p. 144 – 144 Journal of the Chemical Society, , vol. 111, p. 154 – 154 Z. phys. Ch., , vol. 12, p. 174 – 174 Biochemische Zeitschrift, , vol. 21, p. 184 – 184 Journal of the Chemical Society, , vol. 77, p. 10 – 10 Na: MVol., 268, page 742 – 750

 Customs

HS Code 2815110000

 Articles2376

More Articles

Aptamer-based polyvalent ligands for regulated cell attachment on the hydrogel surface.

Biomacromolecules 16(4) , 1382-9, (2015)

Natural biomolecules are often used to functionalize materials to achieve desired cell-material interactions. However, their applications can be limited owing to denaturation during the material funct…

Osmoregulatory bicarbonate secretion exploits H(+)-sensitive haemoglobins to autoregulate intestinal O2 delivery in euryhaline teleosts.

J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. 184(7) , 865-76, (2014)

Marine teleost fish secrete bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) into the intestine to aid osmoregulation and limit Ca(2+) uptake by carbonate precipitation. Intestinal HCO3 (-) secretion is associated with an equi…

Polymerization of affinity ligands on a surface for enhanced ligand display and cell binding.

Biomacromolecules 15(12) , 4561-9, (2014)

Surfaces functionalized with affinity ligands have been widely studied for applications such as biological separations and cell regulation. While individual ligands can be directly conjugated onto a s…

 Synonyms

EINECS 231-659-4
MFCD00011405
NaOH
caustic soda
Sodium hydroxide

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